Scientists have begun unraveling one of the most complex puzzles surrounding the new corona virus epidemic, which is why some people become seriously ill with code 19, while most recover very quickly.
According to recent research reports, in certain individuals, the virus over-stimulates the immune system.
When the invader fails to activate the right cells and molecules in the fight against the virus, the body of the sick person starts using all the weapons.
And this attack wreaks havoc on healthy tissues.
“We saw some amazing things at different stages of the disease,” said Akiko Iowski, a researcher at Yale University in the United States who was involved in a recent study.
Researchers working on patients’ abnormal reactions to the corona virus have observed effects of the virus in patients who become critically ill, which is different from patients who recover quickly.
“A lot of data like this tells us that we have to move from the very beginning, so we can change the effects of the disease,” said John Weir, a recent researcher at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States.
Similar respiratory diseases such as the flu virus try to make room in the body, triggering a two-point defense by the immune system.
The first method, like high-speed fighters, attacks the disease site and tries to control the invading virus, giving the immune system time to attack more systematically.
The initial response depends on the signaling molecules cytokines that are responsible for the response against the virus, which triggers the inflammation.
They are gradually replaced by antibodies and T cells that are specially trained to deal with invading viruses and infected cells.
But in people who become seriously ill with the corona virus, the immune system breaks down and cytokines trigger a never-ending alarm instead of genetically removing the virus.
Simply put, it doesn’t stop the spread of the swelling, even if it is needed.
According to Stanford University researcher Catherine Blass, “Swelling is a normal part of a viral infection, but it becomes a problem when you fail to stop it.”
According to researchers, constant signals from cytokines cause the body to fail to fight the virus, and people who have difficulty recovering may find that the virus accumulates more than other patients, but it persists. Inflammation results.
Failure of the first defense attempt causes the immune system to become more active and this reaction is often destructive.
According to Cornell University expert Ivory August, “on the one hand, the immune system’s response is being damaged, and on the other, the virus continues to replicate itself.”
A study published last week in the journal Nature Medicine found that in people who become seriously ill with code 19, immune system signals attack targets that are not viruses.
According to researchers, the immune system response can be divided into 3 types.
The first type is activated against the invasion of cells by viruses and certain bacteria, the second type invades parasites that do not affect the cells, while the third type deals with fungi and bacteria outside the cells.
Different types of cytokines are used for this purpose.
The first type of immune response is most appropriate in people who are mildly ill with COD 19, while in people with a more severe illness, the second and third types of reactions or resources are also mobilized in an unusual number, which is devastating. Which proves.
According to experts, it is as if the immune system is struggling to identify the right path.
This struggle also affects the functions of B and T cells, these are the two fighters of the immune system that have to stay in touch with each other for their attack.
A study last month found that coronaviruses become a barrier between the two cell communities in most patients who are seriously ill, but it is too early to say for sure. Prevents B and T cells from talking to each other.
These results suggest that the use of drugs that help prevent the spread of the virus may be effective, but experts say it is easy to say but difficult to do.
He said that the real challenge is to prevent this reaction and that without suppressing it, while also getting the right kind of reaction, it is a difficult task.
He added that time is of the essence in this regard, adding that a patient’s use of a drug that suppresses the immune signal too early may cause the reaction to not be as strong as the use of the drug too late. Can create what has already happened.
So far, the effects of treatment to counteract the effects of this immune response have not been mixed or improved, as researchers have not been able to identify the right combination of signals.
On the other hand, steroids such as dexamethasone have proved to be a major hammer in inhibiting the activity of cytokines and early clinical trials have indicated that dexamethasone
Ethasone can be helpful in severe cases of coronavirus, while others are being treated.