The Fifth Caliph and outstanding leader of the Abbasid dynasty was Harun al-Rashid. Except for China, the city of Baghdad, which serves as the capital, grew significantly under his administration. Such was the strength of this magnificent king that his court was full of strong and honourable men who obeyed his commands without batting an eye.
The empire expanded greatly under his direction. From Morocco, it travelled to India. In 797, he also oversaw campaigns that were successful against the Byzantines. All the nations Harun ruled over were noted for their great scientific, religious, and cultural wealth.
Mahmud of Ghazni (r. 971–r. 1030)
Mahmud of Ghazni, the greatest sultan and de facto head of the Ghaznavid kingdom, was known as a